5 Presumed date of the postponed ‘enrolment’ in Palestine, and consequently of the nativity. Birth of Seneca at Corduba in Spain.
4 Death of Herod. Archelaus, Herod Antipas and Philip divide his realm.
3 The holy family returns from Egypt.
6 Banishment of Archelaus. Coponius becomes procurator of the new province of Judea.
7 The census of Acts 5:34.
14 Death of Augustus (in August). Tiberius becomes emperor.
26 Tiberius retires to Capri. Seianus is in virtual control in Rome. Pontius Pilatus becomes procurator of Palestine, succeeding Valerius Gratus.
29 Presumed date of the crucifixion.
30 Velleius Paterculus publishes his history.
32 Martyrdom of Stephen(?). Expansion of the church into Samaria.
33 Conversion of Paul.
34 Death of Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea.
35 Pilate’s massacre in Samaria.
36 Intervention of Vitellius, legate of Syria, and dismissal of Pilate. Marullus becomes procurator.
37 Death of Tiberius. Accession of Gaius Caligula. Birth of Nero and Josephus. Herod Agrippa I succeeds to Philip’s tetrarchy.
38 The church, now established in Antioch, begins its Gentile ministry. Riots in Alexandria between Jews and Gentiles.
39 Herod Antipas is deposed and exiled. Birth of Lucan.
41 Assassination of Gaius. Accession of Claudius. Herod Agrippa I, with royal title, succeeds to all the old Herodian realms.
42 Herod Agrippa’s persecution of the church (?).
43 Roman invasion of Britain.
44 Martyrdom of James. Death of Herod Agrippa I. Reversion to procuratorial rule in Palestine. Cuspius Fadus is appointed. Seneca actively writing, as was Phaedrus the minor poet and fabulist (possibly earlier).
46 Paul and Barnabas are in Jerusalem. Tiberius Alexander, nephew of Philo, is procurator of Judaea.
47 First mission to Galatia. Vespasian and Titus consolidate in Britain.
48 Execution of Messalina, Claudius’ wife. Claudius marries Agrippina. Ventidius Cumanus becomes procurator of Judaea. Herod Agrippa becomes king of Chalcis.
49 Jerusalem Council (?). Claudius expels the Jews from Rome. First Christian evangelism in Rome. Seneca returns from exile to be Nero’s tutor. Paul reaches Europe.
50 Paul is in Corinth. Claudius adopts Nero, Agrippina’s son.
51 Gallio arrives in Corinth.
52 Cumanus is recalled and succeeded as procurator by Antonius Felix. The first letter to Corinth is written this year or the next.
53 Herod Agrippa becomes Agrippa II, ruling the consolidated domains of Philip and Lysanias. Marriage of Nero and Octavia, daughter of Claudius. Paul is in Ephesus.
54 Death of Claudius. Accession of Nero. Felix marries Drusilla.
55 Epistle to the Romans is written about this date.
56 Paul’s visit to Jerusalem and his arrest.
57 Accusation of Pomponia Graecina in Rome on charge of ‘foreign superstition’. Christianity penetrates aristocracy (?).
58 Felix is recalled. Porcius Festus becomes procurator. Paul appeals to Caesar.
59 Nero murders Agrippina, his mother. Paul reaches Rome.
60 Epistles to Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians are written in Rome. Also, Luke’s gospel and the Acts are taking shape. Mark’s gospel is begun. Columella publishes his book on farming.
61 Younger Pliny is born.
62 Acquittal of Paul (?). Death of Persius the satirist.
63 Epistles to Timothy (1) and Titus are written. Josephus is in Rome.
64 Great fire at Rome (July 19) and first imperial persecution of Christians. Festus dies and is succeeded briefly by Albinus then by Gessius Florus.
65 Plot in Rome against Nero. Death of Lucan and Seneca.
66 Great revolt in Palestine. Death of Petronius.
67 Possible date of Paul’s arrest and martyrdom. Vespasian takes over in Palestine. Josephus is captured.
68 Nero’s suicide (June) and accession of Galba. Qumran is destroyed.
69 ‘The year of the four emperors.’ Assassination of Galba. Accession and death of Otho and Vitellius. Vespasian becomes emperor after wide civil war in northern Italy.
70 Fall of Jerusalem. Quintilian is appointed to a teaching post in Rome.
71 Formal triumph in Rome of Vespasian and Titus over Jews.
73 Last remnant of Jewish revolt is crushed at Masada.
75 Agrippa and Bernice visit Rome. Josephus’ Jewish War is published this year or next.
76 Birth of Hadrian the future emperor.
77 Pliny’s Historia Naturalis (?).
79 Death of Vespasian (June). Accession of Titus. Eruption of Vesuvius (Aug. 24). Death of elder Pliny.
80 Colosseum is opened.
81 Death of Titus and accession of Domitian. Tacitus’ first writings appear.
86 Climax of Domitian’s persecution of the aristocracy. John is on Patmos (?).
89 Plutarch is in Rome.
94 Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities is published.
95 Execution of Clemens (a cousin of Domitian) and Glabrio (an exconsul), possibly for Christianity.
96 Death of Statius. John’s writings, probably written a little earlier, are in the hands of the church. John’s death takes place about this time. Domitian is assassinated on Sept. 18. Pliny publishes his letters, and Tacitus prepares his Historiae (published in 105).
98 Tacitus publishes two monographs (Agricola, Germania).
100 Younger Pliny is consul.
101 Death of Silius Italicus and Martial.
105 Tacitus’s Historiae.
111 Pliny writes to Trajan about the Christians in Bithynia.
116 Tacitus’s Annales. Juvenal begins writing.
120 Suetonius’s Lives of the Caesars